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Adrenaline: Definition, Functions, Release and Role in Addiction

Adrenaline is a hormone and neurotransmitter released by the adrenal glands in response to stress or perceived danger. It is also known as epinephrine, and its chemical structure is similar to noradrenaline, another important neurotransmitter.

Its main function is to increase heart rate and blood pressure, which helps deliver more oxygen and nutrients to muscles for increased physical strength and endurance. This allows the body to respond quickly and effectively in emergencies.

Adrenaline is released in response to stress, fear, or excitement. When the brain perceives a threat or danger, it sends signals to the adrenal glands to release adrenaline into the bloodstream. This triggers physical responses such as increased heart rate, faster breathing, and heightened senses. The release of adrenaline also causes blood vessels to constrict, directing blood flow to essential organs like the heart and muscles.

Adrenaline produces feelings of pleasure and euphoria when released in response to certain activities or substances, such as thrill-seeking behaviors or drug use. This leads to a desire for more adrenaline and an increased risk of developing addictive behaviors.

What is Adrenaline?

Adrenaline, or epinephrine, is a hormone the adrenal glands produce. It acts as a chemical messenger that signals various parts of your body to prepare for a ‘fight or flight’ response. According to the Johns Hopkins Journal on “Adrenaline Glands.”

This means it helps you react quickly in dangerous or high-stakes situations by increasing your heart rate, boosting your energy levels, and sharpening your focus. 

When your brain perceives a threat, it sends signals to the adrenal glands to release adrenaline into your bloodstream. From there, it travels to different parts of your body and binds to specific receptors on cells. This binding triggers various physical responses that prepare you for action.

The increased heart rate and blood flow help deliver oxygen and nutrients to your muscles, while the heightened energy levels enhance your ability to respond quickly.

Are There Any Diseases Associated with Adrenaline?

Adrenaline imbalance leads to health conditions, such as Adrenal Gland Tumors, Adrenocortical Carcinoma, Cushing Syndrome, Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia, Pituitary Tumors, Pheochromocytoma, Adrenal Gland Suppression, Addison’s Disease, Hyperaldosteronism, according to a study titled “What are some types of adrenal gland disorders?” (January 2017).

What are the Symptoms of Pheochromocytoma?

The symptoms of pheochromocytoma are high blood pressure, rapid heart rate, headaches, sweating, weight loss, anxiety, and nervousness, as shown by an article in The Penn Medicine Journal titled “Pheochromocytoma.”

  • High Blood Pressure: High blood pressure is the most common symptom of pheochromocytoma and usually occurs in episodes. These episodes last for a few minutes to several hours, and they also cause severe headaches.
  • Rapid heart rate: Along with high blood pressure, pheochromocytoma causes a fast or irregular heart rate, which leads to palpitations when the heart races or is pounding.
  • Headaches: These headaches are intense and also mimic migraines.
  • Sweating: Pheochromocytoma causes excessive sweating, even when the person is not exerting themselves or in a hot environment.
  • Weight loss: Pheochromocytoma leads to unintentional weight loss due to the increased metabolism caused by high adrenaline levels.
  • Anxiety and nervousness: The excess production of adrenaline leads to feelings of anxiety and nervousness in individuals with pheochromocytoma.

Now, let’s have a deeper look at the functions of adrenaline.

What is the Function of Adrenaline?

The four significant adrenaline functions are increasing heart rate and blood pressure, opening airways, and fueling the body with glucose. According to the Cleveland Clinic Journal, “Epinephrine Adrenaline”. 

  • Increasing heart rate: When adrenaline is released into the bloodstream, it causes the heart to beat faster, delivering oxygen and nutrients to the muscles more quickly. This prepares the body for physical activity by increasing cardiac output.
  • Increasing blood pressure: Adrenaline also causes vasoconstriction, which is the narrowing of blood vessels. This increases blood pressure as less space is available for blood flow through the narrowed vessels. This helps redirect blood flow toward major muscle groups needed during a fight or flight response.
  • Opening airways: Adrenaline relaxes the muscles surrounding the airways, allowing them to widen and increase airflow into the lungs. This helps the body take in more oxygen for increased physical activity.
  • Fueling the body with glucose: Adrenaline stimulates the liver to break down glycogen (stored glucose) into glucose and release it into the bloodstream. This provides essential fuel for muscles to use during a fight or flight response.

Apart from these significant functions, adrenaline also increases mental alertness and boosts energy levels by stimulating the release of other hormones like cortisol and dopamine in the brain.

How is Adrenaline Produced?

Adrenaline is produced in the adrenal glands, which are located on top of your kidneys. When you encounter a stressful situation, your brain sends a signal to these glands, prompting them to release adrenaline into your bloodstream, as suggested by the Health Direct Journal titled “Adrenaline.”(March 2022).

The release of adrenaline is part of the “fight or flight” response, which helps your body prepare to either confront the stressful situation or flee from it.

The autonomic nervous system, specifically the sympathetic nervous system, controls the production and release of adrenaline. This system regulates involuntary responses, such as heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing. When faced with a perceived threat or stressor, the sympathetic nervous system triggers the adrenal glands to release adrenaline.

How is Adrenaline Released?

The nervous system triggers the release of adrenaline, according to the study titled “Physiology, Stress Reaction” by  Brianna Chu (May 2024). When you perceive a threat, your hypothalamus, a part of your brain, activates the sympathetic nervous system. This, in turn, stimulates the adrenal glands to release adrenaline, preparing your body for a quick response.

The release of adrenaline begins with a signal from the brain, specifically from an area called the hypothalamus. This area receives information from our senses and determines whether a situation is dangerous. It signals the adrenal glands to release adrenaline if it perceives a threat.

Once released, adrenaline travels through the bloodstream and reaches different body parts. It has a widespread effect on various systems, including our heart rate, blood pressure, breathing rate, and glucose levels.

Adrenaline causes our heart to beat faster and harder, increasing blood flow to our muscles and vital organs. This prepares us for physical action in case we need to fight or flee from danger. It also causes our airways to open up, allowing more oxygen into our lungs, which helps us breathe more efficiently.

What are the Symptoms of an Adrenaline Rush?

The common symptoms of adrenaline rush include increased heart rate and blood pressure, rapid breathing, dilated pupils, sweating, trembling or shaking, restlessness, racing thoughts and difficulty concentrating, heightened senses and alertness, nausea or stomach discomfort, flushed cheeks or skin tingling and increased energy and physical strength. According to a Cleveland Clinic article on “Adrenaline.”

  1. Increased heart rate: The heart rate increases to pump more oxygen-rich blood to the muscles and brain, preparing the body for physical activity or a fight-or-flight response.
  2. Rapid breathing: Adrenaline causes rapid breathing as it helps supply more oxygen. This can result in shortness of breath or even hyperventilation in some cases.
  3. Dilated pupils: When adrenaline is released, the pupils dilate to let in more light, improving vision and increasing alertness.
  4. Sweating: Adrenaline stimulates sweat glands, causing sweating, which helps cool down the body during physical activity.
  5. Trembling or shaking:  Adrenaline stimulates the release of glucose, which provides muscle energy. This causes trembling or shaking in the hands and legs.
  6. Restlessness: The release of adrenaline also makes people feel restless or fidgety as they are physically and mentally primed for action.
  7. Racing thoughts and difficulty concentrating: With heightened alertness comes racing thoughts and difficulty focusing on one task. Adrenaline causes increased brain activity, making it difficult to concentrate on specific tasks.
  8. Heightened senses and alertness: During an adrenaline rush, the senses become sharper, allowing individuals to react quickly to potential threats or challenges.

These symptoms vary in intensity depending on the individual and the situation. In some cases, an adrenaline rush can also cause feelings of fear, anxiety, or panic.

What Kind of Activities Cause an Adrenaline Rush?

The kind of activities that cause an adrenaline rush are extreme sports such as skydiving, thrill rides at amusement parks, participating in high-risk or dangerous activities like rock climbing or base jumping, engaging in combat sports such as boxing or mixed martial arts, driving at high speeds on a racetrack or in a racecar and exploring the great outdoors through activities like mountain biking. According to the WebMD article “What to Know About an Adrenaline Rush” (September 2023).

These activities all share one thing in common: they involve an element of risk and danger. This triggers our body’s “fight or flight” response, causing a surge of adrenaline to prepare us for potential danger.

What Health Conditions Result from Low Levels of Adrenaline?

The health conditions that can result from low levels of adrenaline in the body are fatigue, low blood pressure, dizziness, lightheadedness,  weakness, and muscle aches. According to a Cleveland Clinic article on “Adrenaline.”

  • Fatigue: Low levels of adrenaline make you feel tired and drained. Adrenaline is crucial in regulating our energy levels and keeping us alert and active.
  • Low Blood Pressure: Adrenaline helps to constrict the blood vessels, which increases blood pressure. When there is an adrenaline deficiency, the blood vessels remain dilated, leading to low blood pressure.
  • Dizziness or Lightheadedness: Due to low blood pressure, people experience dizziness or lightheadedness when standing up quickly or after prolonged periods of sitting or lying down. This is known as orthostatic hypotension.
  • Weakness and Muscle Aches: Adrenaline also helps to regulate our muscles by providing them with the necessary glucose for energy. Low levels of adrenaline can result in muscle weakness and aches.
  • Digestive Issues: Adrenaline regulates digestion by reducing blood flow to the digestive organs during stress. When there is a lack of adrenaline, this regulation is disrupted, leading to digestive issues such as nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea.

Therefore, it is essential to maintain adequate adrenaline levels to prevent these health conditions.

What Health Conditions Result from High Levels of Adrenaline?

High levels of adrenaline in the body lead to anxiety disorders, high blood pressure, insomnia, digestive issues, and heart disease. According to the Heath Line article titled, “Adrenaline Rush: Everything You Should Know” by Medically reviewed by Jacquelyn Cafasso (February 2024):

  • Anxiety disorders: Adrenaline is released in response to stress and can cause symptoms like increased heart rate, sweating, and tense muscles. If the body is constantly producing high levels of adrenaline, it can lead to chronic anxiety disorders.
  • High blood pressure: Adrenaline causes the blood vessels to constrict, which increases blood pressure. Continued elevation of adrenaline levels can result in persistent high blood pressure, putting a strain on the heart and increasing the risk of heart disease.
  • Insomnia: Increased adrenaline levels can affect sleep patterns, causing restlessness and difficulty falling asleep, leading to chronic insomnia.
  • Digestive issues: Adrenaline can decrease blood flow to the digestive organs, causing a decrease in digestion and absorption of nutrients. This can lead to digestive problems such as irritable bowel syndrome, ulcers, and other gastrointestinal disorders.
  • Heart disease: High levels of adrenaline over a long period can strain the heart and increase the risk of developing heart disease. The constant stimulation of the heart also causes changes in heart rhythm, leading to arrhythmia or irregular heartbeat.

In addition to these health conditions, constantly elevated levels of adrenaline can also have negative effects on mental health. It can cause irritability, mood swings, and difficulty concentrating.

How is Adrenaline Connected with Addiction?

In the context of addiction, adrenaline is linked in five different ways, namely, the role it plays in reward pathways, its ability to enhance sensory experiences, its association with thrill and risk, its role in the stress response, and its impact on withdrawal effects. According to a study titled “Addiction and the adrenal cortex’ by Gavin P Vinson ( September 2013). 

  1. Role in Reward Pathways: Adrenaline activates the brain’s reward system by triggering the release of dopamine, another neurotransmitter associated with pleasure and reward. This activation reinforces certain behaviors, including those related to addictive substances or activities.
  2. Enhanced Sensory Experience: Adrenaline increases alertness and arousal and enhances sensory perception. This heightened state make experiences related to addictive substances or behaviors more intense and potentially more rewarding, thereby reinforcing the addictive cycle.
  3. Association with Thrill and Risk: Many addictive behaviors, such as gambling, extreme sports, or substance abuse, involve a thrill-seeking component. Adrenaline contributes to the exhilaration and excitement associated with these activities, making them more attractive and reinforcing the behavior.
  4. Stress Response: Chronic stress can trigger the release of adrenaline. In individuals prone to addiction, stress and the associated adrenaline release can lead to seeking out substances or behaviors that provide relief or pleasure, further reinforcing addictive patterns.
  5. Withdrawal Effects: When addicted individuals abstain from their substance or behavior of choice, they often experience withdrawal symptoms. Adrenaline levels can fluctuate during withdrawal, contributing to symptoms such as anxiety, restlessness, and cravings, which can drive continued addictive behavior.

Can Someone Be Addicted to Adrenaline?

Yes, someone can become addicted to adrenaline due to the chemical and physiological effects that adrenaline has on the body. According to the Medical News Today Article on “What is an adrenaline junkie?” by  Adam Rowden ( February 17, 2021).

When you experience an intense adrenaline rush, you will feel exhilarated, energized, and fearless. This is highly addictive because it provides a sense of euphoria and pleasure.

Just like any other addictive substance, the body builds up a tolerance to adrenaline, which leads individuals to seek even more extreme experiences to achieve the same level of high.

What are the Risks of Adrenaline Addiction?

The risks of adrenaline addiction are increased heart rate, high blood pressure, and increased risk of heart attack or stroke.

  • Increased heart rate: When adrenaline is released into the body, it causes the heart to beat faster and harder, leading to increased blood flow. While this can be beneficial in certain situations, such as during physical activity or fight-or-flight responses, constant stimulation of the heart can put strain on it and increase the risk of heart problems.
  • High blood pressure: Adrenaline also constricts blood vessels, which increases blood pressure. This is dangerous for individuals with existing high blood pressure or other cardiovascular conditions.
  • Increased risk of heart attack or stroke: As adrenaline causes increased heart rate and high blood pressure, it also puts individuals at a higher risk for heart attack or stroke. This risk is heightened for those with preexisting cardiovascular conditions or a family history of heart disease.


How Can You Cope with Adrenaline Addiction?

You can cope with Coping with adrenaline addiction by recognizing the problem and seeking help. Engaging in safer, more controlled activities that provide a sense of excitement, such as exercise, can be beneficial. Additionally, seeking professional counseling or therapy can help address the underlying causes of the addiction.

How Does it Feel to Have an Adrenaline Rush?

An adrenaline rush feels exhilarating. Your heart races, your senses become sharper, and you feel a surge of energy. Some people describe it as feeling ‘alive’ and incredibly focused.

What are the Differences Between Adrenaline and GABA?

The difference between adrenaline and GABA is that while adrenaline stimulates and prepares the body for action, GABA has a calming effect, reducing anxiety and promoting relaxation.

What are the Differences Between Adrenaline and Endorphins?

The difference between adrenaline and endorphins is that while adrenaline prepares the body for a ‘fight or flight’ response, endorphins act as natural painkillers, providing a sense of euphoria and reducing pain perception.

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The Rubicon Editorial Team is a collective of seasoned professionals from The Rubicon, a renowned drug and alcohol treatment center. Comprising addiction counselors, medical experts, therapists, and recovery specialists, our team brings a wealth of diverse experience and compassionate insight to our blog. We are dedicated to providing valuable, research-backed information and practical advice to support individuals on their journey to recovery. Our articles aim to educate, inspire, and empower those affected by addiction, offering a beacon of hope and guidance through the complexities of rehabilitation and wellness.

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